Integrated Plasmonic Biosensors: from Critical Care Medicine to Airborne Virus Monitoring
Katsuo Kurabayashi, PhD
Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Nanoparticle-based plasmonic biosensors are label-free, robust, rapid, cost-effective, and easy to integrate into miniaturized fluidic microsystems. These advantageous features make plasmonic biosensors promising candidates for point-of-care testing (POCT) of diseases. However, many of these sensors still fall short of satisfying both the speed and sensitivity required for timely diagnosing and intervening life-threatening critical illnesses resulting from severe infection, trauma, surgery, and immunotherapy side effects. This talk presents recent advances of miniaturized integrated nanomaterial-based biosensors enabling high-performance on-chip plasmonic optoelectronic assay of protein biomarkers by my research group and collaborators. The unique biosensing scheme used for the intergraded biosensors device employs (i) biologically tuned nanoplasmonic light absorbance resonance shifts and (ii) high-responsivity, high-quantum efficiency photoelectronic conversion by two-dimensional atomically layered semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) (e.g, MoS2) nanosheet channels. Using the biosensors, my group demonstrated multi-time-point monitoring of the profiles of circulating sepsis biomarkers in serum in a rapid (< 20 min), sensitive (< 50 fM), sample-sparing (<10 µL) manner. The biosensors have recently been adapted for a homogeneous plasmonic colorimetric assay based on analyte-controlled plasmonic probe aggregation/assembly with a multilayer MoS2 channel. The near-infrared (NIR) operation of the biosensors at λ = 650 nm provides highly sensitive wash-free “mix-and-detection” quantification of a protein cancer biomarker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with an ultralow limit of detection (< 1 fM) and a 6-log linear dynamic detection range while suppressing the background optical interferences of unprocessed physiological fluids, such as human whole blood (WB), urine, and saliva. The biosensor technology has the potential to be translated into well-regulated immune therapy. Additionally, this talk will present the implementation of the integrated plasmonic biosensors for airborne virus particle detection in the context of future ride share settings, where autonomous automobiles will shared by a number of unknown riders. Our airborne virus detection system could also be used for non-invasive rapid COVID breath testing and for continuous biological aerosol monitoring in laboratories, classrooms, and other public spaces.